The seventeenth century

by yudaica2013 ·

The seventeenth century and the Enlightenment in the early seventeenth century the medical profession still did not enjoy prestige among the population too. Quevedo elaborates on his incompetence and their greed in many verses: Edward Jenner, discoverer of the smallpox vaccine. In 1980 the WHO declared the disease eradicated. Yesterday bleed, bleed today. Tomorrow is another dry and windy Kirieleyson. Giving money to the council, present at that healed by miracle or by chance, barbar well, eat better. Contradicting opinions. Always blame the one who died that was so messy and order their Talegona. What with this and good mule, kill a pig every year and twenty friends sick as I am no Socrates. Francisco de Quevedo. But Newton, Leibniz and Galileo will give way in this century the scientific method.While still categorized diseases such as diabetes on the basis of more or less sweet taste of urine, or while smallpox becomes the new scourge of Europe, the technical and scientific developments are about to inaugurate an era more effective and decisive. Edward Jenner, British physician, noted that farmers who have suffered a mild illness of his cows, as small fluid-filled blisters, do not get the dreaded smallpox, and decides to conduct an experiment to test his hypothesis: With an inoculation lancet of the fluid from a blister of a girl infected by smallpox vaccine (variolae vaccine) to a boy named James Phipps, a volunteer for the experiment. After a few days presented the usual symptoms: fever and some blisters. At six weeks the child inoculated a sample from a smallpox patient and wait. James Phipps did not get the disease and since then, this type of immunization is known as “vaccine”.William Harvey, English physician, is the great physiologist of the century, official discoverer of blood circulation, neatly described in his anatomical Exercitatio motu cordis et sanguinis in Animalibus (1628). In the last years of his life he also wrote some treatises embryological interest. The most widespread theory about blood before the publication of Harvey’s work is that this is produced in the liver from food constantly. But his observations will show that this is not possible: the amount of blood passing from the vena cava to the heart and the arteries that is overwhelmingly superior to that of food eaten: The left ventricle, whose minimum is half ounces sends blood to the aorta with each contraction no less than an eighth of the blood it contains, so every half hour from the heart blood around 3000 drachmas (about 12 kg), an amount far greater than can be formed in the liver: then it is necessary to pass back through the heart.William Harvey, the father of modern physiology and embryology. Considered by some as one of the greatest figures in world history of medical knowledge. Harvey takes a more vitalistic versus mechanistic Renaissance: living things are animated by a series of driving forces, which are the cause of their physiological activity, subject of his study in a scientific perspective, but all subject to a vis ( strength) above, the origin of life, although not necessarily divine nature. During this century experimentation progressed at such a rate that the clinic was unable to absorb. Begins to melt the Academies of experts for the transmission of information from the ongoing findings: the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome, the Royal Society in London, or the Academie des Sciences in Paris.Because of the many innovative proposals emerging therapeutic iatrochemistry as a discipline in its own right, whose main exponent is Franciscus Sylvius, heir to the chemical perspective of medicine by Helmont anticipated. Cerebri anatomi home of Major Thomas Willis doctors assigned to this school were Santorio iatrochemistry Sanctorius or Thomas Willis. Santorio was the author of a studythat placed him at the beginning of a long list of endocrinologists, being the first to define the metabolic processes: The first controlled experiment on the human metabolism was published in 1614 in his book Ars de statica medecine. 50 Santorio described as weighing yourself before and after sleeping, eating, working, having sex, drinking and excreting. He found that most of the food she ate was lost in what he called “insensible perspiration.”Like Harvey, Santorio blamed these processes to a “life force” that animated the living tissue. developed as Vitalism philosophical approach and found adherents among physicians and naturalists, reaching its peak in mid-eighteenth century, the hand Xavier Bichat (1771 – 1802), John Hunter (1728 – 1799), Fran ois Magendie (1783-1855) and Hans Driesch (1867-1941).Thomas Willis in his Cerebri anatomi (1664) described several anatomical brain structures, including vascular Willis polygon, named in his honor, but technical improvements, such as a microscope, would expand the level of detail and anatomical descriptions soon proliferate eponymous structures named by their discoverers and by later historians: Johann Georg Wirsung (which names the excretory duct of the pancreas), Thomas Wharton (Wharton’s duct is the excretion of the submandibular salivary gland), Nicolas Stenon ( parotid duct: excretory parotid gland), Caspar Bartholin, De Graaf and so on. Compound microscope made to 1751 by Magny. Another prominent physician of this period is Thomas Sydenham, known as the English Hippocrates.

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